Posts Tagged ‘Financial’
For some purposes, financial markets can be thought of as supermarkets for risk cash flows. Unlike regular supermarkets where you shop among products on the shelves, financial supermarkets work as organized exchanges, where financial securities are purchased and sold in continuous auctions. Most governments need to finance their deficits. To do so they issue government debt. The debt can be short term, in which case we call it a Treasury Bill, which will promise a given cash flow sometime within the next year. A treasury bill is the typical example of a risk free security, there is no uncertainty about the future payments. If government debt is long term, over a year, it is typically issued as government bonds, with annual payments of coupons and a repayment of the grappling value at the bond maturity. Since governments always print money there is no uncertainty about whether you get your money back when you hold a long term government bond.
But government bonds are still not as risk free as treasury bills. The reason is that there is always uncertainty about the future worth of a dollar (or pound, or mark) due to inflation.
A more risky security is corporate equity, or stocks. A corporate equity gives the owner the right to a dividend from the corporation. The dividend is a function of the profitability of the corporation. Since this profitability is quite variable for most companies, the cash flows from a stock will be risky. Historically, though, at least in the U.S, the return from holding equity has been on average much higher than the return from holding government debt. Some of the largest financial markets are markets in derivatives, securities whose payoff depend on the price of some other security, or even on the prices of real (as opposed to financial) goods. Futures markets are markets where one can fix a price this day for a future delivery of some good. Options markets are markets where one can fix a price this day for a future contingent delivery of some good. We usually make a distinction between the primary and the secondary market. The primary market is at the issue of a security.
Treasury securities are often issued to the general public by an auction where anybody can send in bids. This is then the primary market for treasury securities. When a corporation issues equities for the first time, the Initial Public Offering, this is the primary market for equities. When securities are traded after they have been issued (in the primary market), they are stated to be traded in the secondary market. In terms of volume and value, the secondary market dwarfs the primary market. Relative to the amounts being purchased and sold in financial markets, the costs of transacting are small.. It is this that makes it justifiable for us to make an assumption of perfect capital markets, markets where it is costless to transact.
When one wants a automobile and can't effortlessly find the money for the first installment that can cost a fortune, in that case a loan is the ideal achievable way out. A set reimbursement plan eases the trouble of the payment with interest, owed over a decided time. One can make use of the automobile finance calculator to exercise their reimbursements.
In Australia, more than 400 automobile loans are obtainable from banks as well as non-bank lenders and finding the preeminent ones counts on your requirements, the Say you reside in and if it is for a new or second-hand one. One of the other major contributing elements is whether the kind of finance selected is secured or unsecured. A secured loan is when you make use of the automobile you buy as defense next to the finance, therefore in the incident of unfortunate to pay; the automobile can be claimed back.
Top companies not merely offer aggressive rates, however additional services too.
Prior to receiving a automobile loan, expenses for insurance, broker expenses as well as additional extras should be taken into consideration. Comprehend Product Disclosure Statements (PDS) to ensure there are no unknown charges, just a clean agreement. A number of country measures can be taken to stay away from falling into a trap as there are lots of charges attached that might consist of even certifications. Automobile Finance brokers can assess hundreds of automobile loans and are healthy to assist you in selecting the extremely ideal one for you. Brokers will not only think about interest rates, however also features so they can advise the finest product for you.
Car finance calculator is one of the finest tools that can assist you in coming to a decision whether you can get a loan or not. Automobile finance calculator is one of our conserving covering that can be of assistance to us in staying away from any imitation charges.
The automobile loan as well as automobile lease calculator can promptly give you an intent about you how much your fortnightly, monthly finance or lease repayments are going to be.
Since the recession investors have become more cautious investing their money in their right sectors of the Stock market. So going farther than the hype and the bells, the real “secrets” of the stock market game are enclosed within the trading set ups and market signals you rely on to decide how to select stocks, as well as when to purchase and when to sell them, or even when to short sell those that are poised for a profitable fall. So the clearer your set ups are on the stock market the faster you can spot a potentially trading scenario and act without reducing your risk.
Complicated technical systems and information overload can make you slow and confuse you right from the start, making you lose money instead of making your profits grow. In addition to that a mortal can be sure that the trading method he employs to approach via a constant stock market watch can make a huge difference in their results as a trader. In order to succeed they will need to focus on a set of easy trading strategies that you can implement without hesitation.
The stock market this day is more volatile than ever, however there are a number of sites and online share broking sites on the world wide web which instruct their customers to make smart choices when investing their money. They even wage them with various investing techniques which prevent amateur investors from burning their fingers.
Using these investment techniques not only makes individual investors make smart and swift investments but also it helps these investors invest their money in the right places. These online websites even wage their customers with the latest investment trends in the stock markets. Some reputed brokerage firms have employed a special panel investment experts and advisors who constantly wage web visitors effective tips for trading stocks and securities in the stock market.
Investing in stocks at the stock market through a reputed brokerage firm online will not only make prospective customers smart in their investments at the stock market but also help them remain independent in their old age. A number of retired organisation in their sixties and seventies are now towards the competitive stock market for making healthy monetary earnings. Investing in stocks at the stock market this day is fastest and the most cost effective way of earning money.
Recently there has been a surge of young investors who have effectively doubled their incomes by investing in the right sectors of the stock market. Most of them are into online trading which is nothing but the electronic form of trading stocks and securities on the internet. Trading stocks online is a privilege that is enjoyed by people from all backgrounds of society.
Generally stock traders invest in two types of stocks the common stocks, and the preferred stocks. Common stocks basically define the ownership in the company. It is the investment instrument that is used in stock market trading. Common stocks are sold by companies through public offerings and it is also traded on the secondary market.
In contrast to common stocks, preferred stocks are also traded over the counter apart from the regular stock market. Preferred shares have low risk and low rewards against shares which have high risk and also have voting rights.
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We’re BACK! I pray everyone had a decent Holiday… This year should be a great trading year and we serves to be putting in more content, other trades, more educational tips + advice and other helpful items as the year goes on. Forex Commentary
This week’s report will be a special edition with our annual commentary intertwined with our weekly commentary below.
S&P 500 / DOW / NASDAQ: As we look at the rise off the bottom from the lows of March 2009, a period of pullback/profit taking will be coming. There is no way that the equity market can fundamentally keep going higher without a healthy profit taking pullback. We find it quite astonishing that the market has managed to rise even though the country has had all the turmoil in the economy that the U.S. has seen over the past 18 months or so – perhaps a purchase the rumor and sell the news situation??? Perhaps all the sellers left and only buyers with itchy fingers and wads of cash in their pocket were left hanging around…who knows… time will tell – it always does.
We do think that we have seen the bottom in the overall Stock Market from the lows of March of 2009 and that the economy will improve from the misery that we saw in 2008 + 2009 and perhaps the market reacted to that, however the market can't continue its large move higher without a major pause or a bubble larger than the one that developed 10 years ago will be place in place – which will end badly for the bullish cause. Keep in mind that the DOW moved about 4000 points in about 9 months. Forex Commentary
With that being said, how would we handle this? On a short-term trading program – we would ride the Bull Train until the Bull shows us that he has no more horns left, however… we will take profits quicker than normal on our bullish plays and use relatively tighter stop losses. We wouldn’t commit hugely to any long term bull trend setups. On a long term portfolio situation – we would begin to move off any margin in our long term portfolios (starting now) and we would take profits on any “iffy” stocks or equity investments if we were in them. We then would seriously think about buying place options that would cover/help protect our total portfolio on any major weekly bearish signals/setups that showed up on the charts. If the weekly bearish setups begin to form a solid bear setup on the monthly charts we would begin going to cash (not to 100% cash but do some “healthy trimming down) with continued endorsement from place options (or the equivalent derivative trade). We aren’t speaking a total capitulation as we don’t think 2010 will be a total bear year and we would not be shocked if we ended the year marginally higher but the RISK is there AND there is a decent chance that the market will pullback some time in the 1st qtr and linger all year on the bearish side of things. Always want to have financial freedom? Check out Forex Commentary Program. It’ll change your Life Forever!
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Financial Markets and the role of the primary and secondary marketsDefinition of Financial Market
A financial market might be defined simply as a market for the exchange of capital and credit in the economy. Money markets concentrate on short-term debt instruments; capital markets trade in long-term debt and equity instruments. The purpose of these markets is to channel savings and surplus liquidity into long-term productive investments.
In economics, a financial market is a mechanism that grants people to easily purchase and sell (trade) financial securities (such as stocks and bonds), commodities (such as precious metals or agricultural goods), and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect the efficient market hypothesis. Financial markets have evolved significantly over several hundred years and are undergoing constant innovation to improve liquidity.
The financial markets can be divided into different subtypes:
• Capital markets which consist of:
o Stock markets, which wage financing through the issuance of shares or common stock, and enable the subsequent trading thereof.
o Bond markets, which wage financing through the issuance of Bonds, and enable the subsequent trading thereof.
• Commodity markets, which assist the trading of commodities.
• Money markets, which wage short term debt financing and investment.
• Derivatives markets, which wage instruments for the management of financial risk.
o Futures markets, which wage standard forward contracts for trading products at some future date; see also forward market.
• Insurance markets, which assist the redistribution of various risks.
• Foreign exchange markets, which assist the trading of foreign exchange.
Without financial markets, borrowers would have difficulty finding lenders themselves. Intermediaries such as banks help in this process. Banks take deposits from those who have money to save. They can then lend money from this pool of deposited money to those who seek to borrow. Banks popularly lend money in the form of loans and mortgages.
Financial Market Instruments
Financial Market instrument are defined as long-term financial instruments generally with maturity exceeding one year.
The capital markets consist of primary markets and secondary markets. Newly formed (issued) securities are purchased or sold in primary markets. Secondary markets grant investors to sell securities that they hold or purchase existing securities. A capital market is a market where both government and companies raise long term funds to trade securities on the bond and the stock market. It consists of both the primary market where new issues are distributed among investors, and the secondary markets where already existent securities are traded.
In the capital market, mortgages, bonds, equities and other such investment funds are traded. The capital market also facilitates the procedure whereby investors with excess funds can channel them to investors in deficit.
The capital market provides both overnight and long term funds and uses financial instruments with long maturity periods. The following financial instruments are traded in this market:
• Equity instruments
• Credit market instruments
• Derivative instruments
• Foreign exchange instruments
• Hybrid instruments
• Insurance instruments
In today’s financial marketplace, financial instruments can be classified generally as equity based, representing ownership of the asset, or debt based, representing a loan prefabricated by an investor to the owner of the asset. Foreign exchange instruments comprise a third, one-of-a-kind type of instrument. Different subcategories of apiece instrument type exist, such as preferred share equity and common share equity, for example.
Negotiability of Financial Instruments
As the financial markets function with the help of financial instruments through which financial resources are mobilized and invested, these instruments require to be negotiable. The negotiability means that these instruments can be purchased and sold and ownership of instruments transferred from one mortal to another through the act of buying and selling between a celebration who wishes to invest surplus funds and the holder who is willing to dispose of a particular instrument. The examples of negotiable instruments are cheques, certificates of deposits, promissory notes, banker acceptances, bonds, etc.
Role of the Primary Market
In the primary market, securities are issued on an exchange basis. The underwriters, that is, the investment banks, play an important role in this market: they set the initial price range for a particular share and then supervise the selling of that share. Investors can obtain news of upcoming shares only on the primary market. The issuing firm collects money, which is then used to finance its operations or expand business, by selling its shares. Before selling a security on the primary market, the firm must fulfill all the stipulations regarding the exchange. After trading in the primary market the security will then enter the secondary market, where numerous trades happen each day. The primary market accelerates the process of capital formation in a country’s economy.
The primary market categorically excludes several other new long-term finance sources, such as loans from financial institutions. Many companies have entered the primary market to acquire profit by converting its capital, which is basically a private capital, into a public one, releasing securities to the public. This phenomena is known as “public issue” or “going public.”
There are three methods though which securities can be issued on the primary market: rights issue, Initial Public Offer (IPO), and preferential issue. A company’s new offering is put on the primary market through an initial public offer.
The Role of the Secondary Market
The secondary market is a market for used goods where one investor can purchase a security from other investors instead of the issuer. All the securities are first created in the primary market and then, they enter into the secondary market.
Banking thrives on the existence of secondary financial markets. The commercial banks invest in very short-term financial assets, which they can convert into cash very swiftly at negligible conversion cost. There are several ingredients of a secondary financial market: financial papers, dealers, and financial institutions.
Various kinds of financial assets such as securities, bonds, shares, debentures, commercial papers are the financial instruments. Merchant banks, investment banks, mutual funds, investment funds etc. are the financial institutions. Then, there are a massive number of buyers and sellers who deal in these financial papers.
The establishment of an efficient secondary market will be crucial to the smooth functioning of PLS investment. There are two main reasons for this.
1. It is difficult to value the underlying assets and their earning potential, particularly for small periods or during the gestation period. No such problem arises in the case of debt contract, since the earnings and time schedule are concurred at the beginning of the project.
2. Long-term PLS financing outside the Stock Market might also be illiquid, which discourages investors. This is not peculiar to PLS, but, together with item I above, it can cause further difficulties.
The secondary market can wage the valuation method and, by making trading possible, solves the liquidity problem. Contracts prefabricated by financial intermediaries can be listed on the Stock Market and traded just like primary securities and their value will be acquirable at all times.
Thus the existence of the secondary market solves both the problems mentioned above. The elimination of a known cost of capital is replaced by a mechanism which continuously updates the value of capital and gives sufficient opportunities for risk transfer through the trading of ownership.
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Do you have any unpaid tax bill? Then check out if you have received any notice of Federal Tax Lien. This is a tool used by IRS to declare to the world that you are the defaulter and have not paid the taxes.
This tiny little notification has a power to destroy your credit history to a massive extent. This notice will stay attached to all your assets and thus you will not be healthy to sell or apply for a loan against any of your assets. You will find yourself ineligible to buy even a small quality because of this lien. It will have worst consequences on your entire financial life as it has such a smashing impact on your credit.
After receiving the Federal Tax lien notice you are supposed to pay the tax bill within the given time limit. If you change to do so, then the IRS is free to file the notice of your debt in all the public records offices. This notice will also be sent in any other country wherever you live if you are not living in US. If you have real estates in other countries, IRS will reach there also.
IRS of course gives you a notice before this happens to give you a final chance to clear up your tax debt. You also get a chance of a hearing from the IRS, wherein you can challenge the validity of the lien. If you change to convince IRS, then you have further option to appeal to the U.S. Tax Court or a federal district court.
But it is always a good policy to get the Lien released by negotiating with IRS. For this you will have to pay the tax debt in full. You can also think of filing bankruptcy if the conditions are not manageable. The IRS also accepts compromise offers in such cases. After a period of 10 years the statute of limitation can also eliminate this lien.
Once the lien is released, the same is confirmed from IRS by sending you a Certificate of Release of lien within 30 days time. You have to maintain such certificates for apiece and each lien filed against you. If it is not received by you, you can request for it to the Chief of Special Procedures in the same IRS office from where the lien was filed.
After this work you need to clean your credit report. You should contact the credit reporting agencies and acquire a copy of your credit report. Check these reports properly to confirm if your credit history is properly updated or not. In case it is not, you have to request these agencies to check the public records or contact the IRS. You can also furnish them a copy of the certificate for a swift correction.
Remember, the issuance of a tax lien can remain on your credit records for 10 long years!
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